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Informaţii despre proiect
Rezidențial - locuințe colective
70mp - Prototip
800E/mp - Prototip
Romania - Bucuresti Bucuresti Nerva Traian cu bulevardul Unirii Piata volanta
Echipa de proiect
arh. Gheorghe Ciobanu -Project architect, arh. Anca Bodale -Project Manager, arh. Simona Serban -Architecture coordinator
- Anca Bodale - Project Manager & Architect
- Razvan Butucescu - Construction Manager - Civil Engineering & Construction - Gheorghe Andrei - Site Operation - Civil Engineering & Construction - Catalin Ionut Sima - Project ingineer - Building Services Engineering & Energy Efficiency - Cosmin Teodor Stanciu - HVAC Engineer - Building Services Engineering & Energy Efficiency - Claudiu Stanciu - Electrical Engineer - Building Services Engineering & Energy Efficiency - Daniel Butucel - Sponsorship Manager - Communication & Fundraising - Adrian Moleavin - Faculty Advisor - General Architecture
Ion Mincu’ University of Architecture and Urbanism - Monica Felicia Briciu - Faculty Advisor - Civil Engineering
Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest - Tiberiu Catalina - Faculty Advisor - Building Services Engineering
Technical Universtity of Civil Engineering of Bucharest - Ana Opris - Faculty Advisor - Faculty of Urban Planning
‘Ion Mincu’ University of Architecture and Urbanism - Alexandra Florina Cristea - Architecture Student & Student Team Leader - Architecture department - Isabela Maria Stoiculescu - Architecture Student - Architecture department - Delia Cruciureanu - Architecture Student - Architecture department - Florentina Costache - Landscape Architect - Architecture department - Bianca Tita - Urban Planner - Architecture department - Vladimir Berniciu - Urban Planner - Architecture department - Alexandra Unchiesel - Architecture student - Architecture department - Madalin Paslaru - Architecture student - Architecture department - Cosmin Paduraru - Architecture Student - Architecture department - Cezara Busila - Engineer Student - Iulian Piciu - Engineer Student - Daniel Ailioaie - Engineer Student - Florin Manole - Engineer - Mihai Valentin Pavel - HVAC Student - Tom Hartogs - Machine Learning - Irina Chirniciuc - Highschool Student - Daniela Vocheci - Highschool Student - Ioana Bodale - Visual Artist - Vladimir Gheorghe - Fundraising & Communication department - Nadejda Ianet - Fundraising & Communication department - Stefan Bucuresteanu - Fundraising & Communication department - Stefan Manolache - Fundraising & Communication department - Sergiu Stefan Silivestru - Fundraising & Communication department - Ema Emilia Predanu - Fundraising & Communication department - Diana Zarnescu - Fundraising & Communication department - Roxana Chivu - Fundraising & Communication department - Georgiana Radu - Fundraising & Communication department - Andra Taudor - Fundraising & Communication department - Cristina Cretu - Fundraising & Communication department - Simona Serban - Architect - Architect coordinator - Gheorghe Ciobanu - Architect - Project Architect - Simona Serban - Architect - Architect coordinator - Gheorghe Ciobanu - Architect - Project Architect
In Romania, buildings, respectively the housing sector and the tertiary sector [offices, commercial spaces and other non-residential buildings] are using 46% of the total national energy consumtion.
It is a poluting and resources devouring process!
Some key statistics for the residential sector are as follows:
- 88.5% of the dwellings are permanently occupied.
- Nearly half of all dwellings [47.5%] are located in rural areas, which means that the rural population in Romania is larger the European average.
- In rural areas, 95% of dwellings are individual family dwellings.
- In urban areas, 72% of the dwellings are located in large blocks of flats with an average of approx. 40 apartments per block.
- Over 60% of housing blocks have 5 floors and 16% have 10 floors.
- The dominant form of ownership is private property, which accounts for 84% of the total building stock.
- Romania is an unusual case within the EU because only a small proportion of 1% is public property; the remaining 15% are buildings owned as a mixed property.
- Multi-family homes have an average surface area of 48 m², compared with 73 m² for single-family homes.
As a type of settlement and for the purpose of life organization, the city is made up of fixed framework elements [building frameworks: buildings, streets, pulsations] and mobile elements [urban life: activities, relationships]. From a morphological point of view, the collective housing building stock, organized in micro-terrains, is a trigger for changes in the evolution of the urban macro-shape of Bucharest and all the major cities of Romania.
Our study aimes at revealing the morphological complexity of the urban tissue generated by the 770 constructions series, by using a systemic approach, from simple elements to complex spatial structuring, thus offering the opportunity to distinguish and creatively interpret the internal coherence of a specific urban fabric.
Despite the lack of information regarding the 770 project series built in Bucharest, we have been analyzing the entire city using Google Maps. We literally counted the blocks in all the districts of the city thus getting familiar with the types of spatial configurations used by urbanists in the communist period and analysed the types of interventions we might be able to implement further.
The identification and inventory processes have led to the understanding of certain spatial models, which have proven their quality and viability over time but do not meet the morphological requirements of contemporary urban space. By simply looking at the urban tissue samples represented below / we can thus observe the transition, not a gradual one in most cases, from individual dwellings [traditional tissue characterized by an accumulation of individual plots] to large collective “state” housing complexes [on state-owned land].
Two major periods stand out in the morphological analysis of the multistorey appartment building areas in the city of Bucharest:
1. The 1965-1975 period | marks the appearance of the collective dwelling organized in micro-terrains, carried out by industrialized means and, in most cases, according to a few standardized projects. Large peripheral living quarters, surnamed dormitory quarters, were constructed on previously unoccupied land [for example the- Balta Albă - Titan, Drumul Taberei, Berceni or Pajura areas] or by taking over the existing urban fabric [for example, Militari area].
2. The 1975-1990 period | the construction of large peripheral assemblies continues. Existing assemblies are restructured [the lamination and complete rebuilding of the street fronts and landscapes in the depth of the terrain - Lacul Tei, Moşilor, Ştefan cel Mare or Mihai Bravu areas]. The period also includes the radical restructuring of some peripheral areas previously occupied by individual dwellings [Colentina, Pantelimon, Pipera, Băneasa, Crângaşi, etc].
The problems of large residential areas are extremely visible, as are the difficulties faced by the owners’ associations, the central and local authorities and other institutions involved in the attempts to change the current situation!
The problems faced by housing complexes are intricate and interrelated: from the poor current condition of the buildings [about 40% are made out of prefabricated panels and have thermal insulation problems], to utilities [water, heating, electrical installations, gas, and sanitation that are expensive and present losses], to the difficult access to parks, health centers, education institutions, shops and the overall connectivity through good roads and parking spaces.
All these shortcomings lead to a continuous decrease in the phisical and quality of life throughout the large residential areas in Bucharest.
Moreover, if these problems that exist in the case of condominiums are not solved in one way or another, there is a high risk of ghettoization in certain areas: if the wealthiest individuals can leave, the apartment buildings in these areas will remain populated by families too poor to be able to afford maintaining their home at a minimum comfort level.
Congenital / background deficiencies, derived from the initial concept:
- small average area of each housing unit;
- insufficient number of rooms, related to the structure of the families [the preponderance of the two and three rooms, of which a significant percentage have their access through the living room];
- inadequate spaces reserved for the annexed functions;
- low functional quality of the average dwelling - in terms of variety, flexibility, adaptability;
- indifferent orientation of the functions within the dwelling towards the cardinal points or towards the important or heavily circulated streets; reduced natural ventilation possibilities through overall design and the orientation of the rooms;
- poor illumination / ventilation of the stairwell;
- poor quality of initial materials, execution often deficient;
- acoustic deficiency associated with structural construction types;
- insufficient degree of thermal insulation on the initial project;
- anti-seismic design according to current codes is outdated for a large part of the collective housing;
- excessive consumption [electricity / heat, domestic water].
Actual deficiencies / problems that occured over time:
- materials, building elements, damaged equipment, systems and facilities - affecting the degree of thermal insulation and structural safety of the whole building;
- non-authorized structural and constructive changes, with technical complications;
- unhealthy living condition; particular circumstances with essential influence: high humidity, the occurrence of chronic condensation accompanied by mold;
- reduced acoustic comfort - unacceptable internal noise level [it is not considered a congenital defect because it involves altering the sources of noise over time].
- occupancy overcrowding [in flats, in common areas but also outside: parking lots, playgrounds].
Over4 is the team that qualified Romania at the Solar Decathlon competition 2019 edition Hungary Szentendre. It is a multidisciplinary team of young researchers, students, PhD students, teachers, architects and engineers who build an energetically efficient house prototype part of the Over4 concept of energy efficiency rehabilitation.
Project Over4 Goal
The main goal of our project is to challenge the status-quo in terms of renovating the existing buildings by establishing a new standard for the way in which the housing blocks, built in the communist period in Romania, are currently being rehabilitated.
In other words, the OVER4 overall goal is TO PROPOSE A MULTIVALENT REHABILITATION STANDARDIZED STRATEGY for the appartment buildings stock, using for exemplification the 770 type, that will interrelate the improvment of the buildings quantitative [psysical] and qualitative [moral] properties, with reducing its environmental impact [by reducing the energy consumption, utilizing renewable energy resources and reaching the nZEB standard], and with elevating the its user’s quality of living.
Our research and final reahabilitation’s standardized proposal will be validated in practice by our built model and participation in the Solar Decathlon Competition.
An additional essential objective consists in our plan is TO DEFINE AN EXAMPLE OF GOOD PRACTICE
that will underpin the future renovation strategies in our country, by involving and connecting in our endeavor the educational, public and private sectors, with visible and quantifiable positive results.
Also, given that this is an educational project that tackles the theme of energy consumption in buildings and the impact that buildings have on the environment, a second additional objective is TO MAKE AWARE BOTH AUTHORITIES AND THE LARGE PUBLIC that immediate measures must, and can be, taken in order to better future for the ongoing rehabilitation of the citie’s building stock and also for the new citie’s developments.
In order to develop our rehabilitation concept, urbanistic studies have been made on the residential areas of Bucharest where the 770 building that we are studying is found in large numbers. Because of our very challenging renovation concept, we needed to identify the main problems that arise from an urbanistic perspective, given the restrictions of the current building regulations.
Also, from the first stages of the project we continuously focused on gathering information from professionals, authorities and other entities regarding the 770 housing blocks in Bucharest, in order to answer the questions regarding the initially projected and current technical status of the buildings we study and finally to the design the functionalities of the prototype.
The prototype for Solar Decathlon Competition embodies one possible rooftop extension of the existing 770 block series.
We based our concept on a structural study made by the Technical Departement of the “Ion Mincu” University of Architecture and Urbanism that confirmed that these buildings can be overbuilt with a light structure [wood or steel] that can receive different shapes or functions, public or private.
In relation with the Solar Decathlon competition we have proposed to verticaly extend the building with small flats. Based on the existing building’s plan, the upper area of the block can fit 6 independent living modules, equal in size. Our prototype features one of these 6 modules.
The house is thought as an open space. We have chosen this particular scenario for the prototype to emphasise the idea that the module can take any function from the different possible scenarios. Thus, the stair, the dining area and the living area share a common main floor, while the bedroom and the workspace share a withdrawn floor. To maximise the use of space, all the functions can be easily reconfigured to suit the day-night transition and its different possible functions.
Considering that all the modules normaly have common walls on all the sides except one face, a thick thermal insulation layer will cover the eastern, western and northern walls, to mimic the minimal loss of thermal energy between adjoining flats. The only wall with windows will be on the south facade. As all the light will permeate only from one side, additional roof windows are considered.
Project Over’4 Impact on the Build Environment and Local Communities
The project’s name has two meanings: one relating to the fact that the rehabilitation process is related to the 4 storeys 770 standard appartment buildings and the main intervention is over the 4th storey, and the second one emphasizing that there are over [more than] 4 main benefits of the intervention, concerning the impact of the rehabilitation process on the natural and built environment and on the local community.
Let’s talk about benefits! We counted at least 6 major benefits:
1. Exterior community spaces rehabilitation
The masterplan proposal made by architects and urbanists intends, inside the limitations of the current spatial configuration, to implement different automation strategies in order to fluidify the traffic around and inside the residential zones, each solution depending on the needs and capabilities of those areas; to give back to the community the available space around the blocks by creating new recreational or functional areas; to create new parking spaces and concentrate the existing ones by proposing mechanical vertical parking modules where possible [on the blind facades of the blocks].
2. Structural rehabilitation
Because in Romania the building of new appartment blocks is slow and because the current appartment building stock is insufficient and already old, it makes sense to consolidate the existing structures in order to extend the lifespan of the existing appartment buildings. In our proposal, the horizontal extension of the building forms, with the old building, a hybrid structure in accordance with the current structural design regulations and with a longer lifespan.
3. Energy rehabilitation
One of the focuses of the project is that the new hybrid buildings reach the nZEB standard, to include new performant materials and the use of renewable energy sources in order to minimize as much as possible the impact that these buildings have on the natural environment and to reduce the maintenance costs. Our built module is designed [and will be certified to the Passive House energy standard]. In the end, we envision these buildings as providers and not consumers of energy, a wish that is well inside our current knowledge and technical possibilities.
4. Environment rehabilitation.
In relation with the energy rehabilitation of the building, the reconfiguration at the nZEB standard means a much better control of the quality of the indoor environment and of the comfort parameters. For the exterior environment, we propose that the south facades can be designed as green facades, possible vertical gardens, that will contribute to a better air quality and microclimate.
5. Functional and spatial rehabilitation.
The horizontal extension of the building ensures the spatial and functional reorganization of the apartments according to the identified needs of the different categories of inhabitants: [a] remodeling gaps in the facades by demolishing the window sills will allow for better interior lighting and a more fluid relationship with the exterior; [b] we propose to expand and transform the balconies into a multi-purpose space which can function both in a closed regime, as an expansion of the living space, as a wintergarden or a greenhouse to grow plants, or in an open regime as a terrace, contributing substantially to increasing the comfort of the apartments by expanding the area of the appartments.
The vertical extension of the buildings with a new storey is designed to receive multiple functions, private, as a response to urban densification question, or public, as a response to urban regeneration problems concerning accesibility and reducing the traffic problems. Functions as new appartments, a community shared recreational space or a community shared functional spaces, a greenhouse for growing ecological food etc are part of the first cathegory, while functions as kindergarden, after-school, spaces for the elderly and even offices for rent are part of the second cathegory.
First of all, we thought of this project as an economically self-sustaning process. You do not need money to fund the rehabilitation; the selling, renting or simply beneffiting from the new spaces of the 6th storey will fund the entire process, directly or through a shared bank loan. Also, the reducing of the maintenance costs dute to rehabilitating at the nZEB standard, has to be taken into account on the overall investments costs.
Also, taking into consideration that there is no national or local strategy to relocate owners during building’s rehabilitation, we devise for the implementation phase a process of working from the ouside of the building, from bottom to the top, with minimum and on a very short-term intervention on the inside of the existing building, keeping the impact and disturbance of owners as low as possible.
Second, the ecological sustainability is attained through the usage of renwable materials, green facades / roofs, ecological technologies and the use of renewable energies. The rehabilitation of entire neighbourhouds in this holistic approach will have a positive effect on the environment and on the local microclimate, minimizing the local urban heat islands.
Third, the social sustainability is address by creating new opportunities for the community to develop and evolve: the conversion of the exterior spaces around the blocks into spaces for the community, the possibility of creating new shared community spaces and adding new community functions on the new built level, etc.The educational input of tackling a common project like this one and the experiences of its effects are also extremely valuable for the present and future local community.
In the end, it is important to note that our design concept is to offer on one hand a holistic rehabilitation strategy with clear sustainability and nZEB standard goals, and on the other hand, a flexible physical structure upon which different eco-solutions can be customized to fit the local conditions, requirements and financial possibilities.
The rehabilitation process 1980 , 2005 and 2018, and The Over4 Rehabilitation solution for 2020 nZEB standard.
Harta cu localizarea proiectului
Over4 followed an exploratory approach, aiming for a self financing complex retrofit. Another important aspect taken into consideration was creating minimal hassle for the current residents during the renovation process.
The common practice in buildings refurbishing is mainly focused on improving energy conditions though the replacement of materials and equipment.
The condominium buildings from the communist built neighborhoods need to be adapted for new families, for multiple generations, for new comfort requirements and for an increasingly multi‐cultural society.
Extensions can be categorized in horizontal (adding extra area to building property) and vertical ones (stacking up more levels). Roof raising is a way to increase the built density in cases where the external growth is either limited or not convenient. In semi central areas of the city, with high land use and high property prices, roof raising is a very effective way of adding livable space.
From an urban standpoint, areas with identical condominium buildings the ideal candidate for retrofitting, providing the opportunity for variations within a unitary urban fabric.
The matter of sustainability calls for a strategy which goes further than quantitative aspects and delves on qualitative ones, surpassing mere technical calculations. We decided to create more habitation units in order to fund the renovation and improvement of living conditions for the current inhabitants (larger living spaces, balconies, installing a elevator, etc).
The main target of the rehabilitation process that we want to emphasize on in our project is the improvement of both the general quality of the inhabitant’s apartments and their life quality while proposing new shared spaces for dwellers with the scope of further connecting the community by changing habits and lifestyle in the neighborhood.
We propose a holistic approach to the current rehabilitation projects and focus on reducing the energy consumption and the environmental impact in order to reach the nZEB standard.
Energy efficiency Over4 benefits.
The image represents the bioclimatic strategy of the Over4 prototype.
Bucharest construction site.
Over4 participation in the 2019 edition Solar Decathlon contest, Europe Hungary Szentendre. The prototype will be tested and monitored at 10 energy efficiency tests.
Over4 Construction Phase 1.
Over4 Construction Phase 1.
Over4 at Solar Decathlon workshop Hungary Szentendre 2019.